|The last U.S. lab dedicated to particle physics will be forced to lay off about 200 of its 1900 scientists next month after learning yesterday that its 2008 budget will be nearly 17% smaller than expected (ScienceNOW, 18 December). The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois, will also be forced to stop work on all accelerator-based projects, a move that threatens the viability of the 40-year-old Department of Energy (DOE) lab.
The budget decisions, part of a $550 billion omnibus spending package that Congress approved this week, call into question the U.S.'s commitment to particle physics as a whole, says Fermilab Director Pier Oddone. "There's a policy question for the government and for Congress," he says. "Do we want to stay in particle physics or not?"
The omnibus bill, passed nearly 3 months into the 2008 fiscal year, funds every federal agency outside the Defense Department. Bowing to a demand by President George W. Bush to trim domestic spending, the Democratic Congress sliced $22 billion from an earlier spending blueprint. That step meant steep cuts across the government, including a proposed double-digit boost for DOE's $3.8 billion Office of Science that funds Fermilab. As a result, the 8% increase that the lab was expecting for 2008 suddenly turned into a 10% cut from current levels. That $62 million turnaround (from $372 million to $310 million) specifically targets projects that are key to Fermilab's future.
One is a neutrino experiment known as NO?A, which would have been the lab's flagship experiment after its Tevatron collider shuts down. Researchers had expected $36 million in funding to start assembling the experiment this year; instead, Congress flat-lined the budget for the program, for which Fermilab spent $16 million last year.
Congress also cut funding for the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC)--a 30-kilometer-long multibillion-dollar behemoth that U.S. researchers hope someday to build at Fermilab (Science, 9 February, p. 746). Congress reduced funding for ILC research and development from a requested $60 million to $15 million. It also cut funding for research on superconducting accelerator technology from a projected $24 million to $5 million. Fermilab's share of those two pots shrunk accordingly, from an expected $47 million to $15 million. As the fiscal year is a quarter over, physicists have already spent nearly that much, so work will stop immediately, Oddone says. "These cuts rain down devastation on all these future programs," he says.
The cuts may also affect Fermilab's flagship Tevatron collider, which researchers hope will cough up the long-sought Higgs boson before it is nabbed by the more powerful Large Hadron Collider. The LHC will swing into action next summer at the European particle physics lab, CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland. To meet the new budget, employees will have to take unpaid leave, although Oddone says he hopes a "rolling furlough" program will allow him to keep the machine running.
The cuts undermine Fermilab's plan to move into neutrino research in the next several years and then, before the end of the next decade, play a leading role in the ILC. Some observers say that the cuts threaten the lab's very existence. "This sets Fermilab on a trajectory for closure after 2011," says Michael Lubell, director of public affairs for the American Physical Society in Washington, D.C. Barry Barish, a physicist at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and leader of the ILC Global Design Effort, says that project is in better shape, despite a 75% cut in the U.S. contribution to its budget, than is Fermilab. "Their problems dwarf ours," Barish says. "Fermilab is in deep, deep, deep trouble."