The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anticancer drug candidate because it selectively binds to the proapoptotic death receptors, which are frequently overexpressed in a wide range of cancer cells, subsequently inducing strong apoptosis in these cells. However, the therapeutic benefit of TRAIL has not been clearly proven, mainly because of its poor pharmacokinetic characteristics and frequent resistance to its application caused by the activation of a survival signal via the EGF/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. Here, a lumazine synthase protein cage nanoparticle isolated from Aquifex aeolicus (AaLS) was used as a multiple ligand-displaying nanoplatform to display polyvalently both TRAIL and EGFR binding affibody molecules (EGFRAfb) via a SpyTag/SpyCatcher protein-ligation system, to form AaLS/TRAIL/EGFRAfb. The dual-ligand-displaying AaLS/TRAIL/EGFRAfb exhibited a dramatically enhanced cytotoxicity on TRAIL-resistant and EGFR-overexpressing A431 cancer cells in vitro, effectively disrupting the EGF-mediated EGFR survival signaling pathway by blocking EGF/EGFR binding as well as strongly activating both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways synergistically. The AaLS/TRAIL/EGFRAfb selectively targeted A431 cancer cells in vitro and actively reached the tumor sites in vivo. The A431 tumor-bearing mice treated with AaLS/TRAIL/EGFRAfb exhibited a significant suppression of the tumor growth without any significant side effects. Collectively, these findings showed that the AaLS/TRAIL/EGFRAfb could be used as an effective protein-based therapeutic for treating EGFR-positive cancers, which are difficult to manage using mono-therapeutic approaches.