Omicron has become the globally dominant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant, creating additional challenges due to its ability to evade neutralization. Here, we report that neutralizing antibodies against Omicron variants are undetected following COVID-19 infection with ancestral or past SARS-CoV-2 variant viruses or after two-dose mRNA vaccination. Compared with two-dose vaccination, a three-dose vaccination course induces broad neutralizing antibody responses with improved durability against different SARS-CoV-2 variants, although neutralizing antibody titers against Omicron remain low. Intriguingly, among individuals with three-dose vaccination, Omicron breakthrough infection substantially augments serum neutralizing activity against a broad spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron variants BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5. Additionally, after Omicron breakthrough infection, memory T cells respond to the spike proteins of both ancestral and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 by producing cytokines with polyfunctionality. These results suggest that Omicron breakthrough infection following three-dose mRNA vaccination induces pan-SARS-CoV-2 immunity that may protect against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.