Most genome editing analyses to date are based on quantifying small insertions and deletions. Here, we show that CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing can induce large gene modifications, such as deletions, insertions, and complex local rearrangements in different primary cells and cell lines. We analyzed large deletion events in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) using different methods, including clonal genotyping, droplet digital polymerase chain reaction, single-molecule real-time sequencing with unique molecular identifier, and long-amplicon sequencing assay. Our results show that large deletions of up to several thousand bases occur with high frequencies at the Cas9 on-target cut sites on the HBB (11.7 to 35.4%), HBG (14.3%), and BCL11A (13.2%) genes in HSPCs and the PD-1 (15.2%) gene in T cells. Our findings have important implications to advancing genome editing technologies for treating human diseases, because unintended large gene modifications may persist, thus altering the biological functions and reducing the available therapeutic alleles.