Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and T2D-associated comorbidities, such as obesity, are serious universally prevalent health issues among post-menopausal women. Menopause is an unavoidable condition characterized by the depletion of estrogen, a gonadotropic hormone responsible for secondary sexual characteristics in women. In addition to sexual dimorphism, estrogen also participates in glucose–lipid homeostasis, and estrogen depletion is associated with insulin resistance in the female body. Estrogen level in the gut also regulates the microbiota composition, and even conjugated estrogen is actively metabolized by the estrobolome to maintain insulin levels. Moreover, post-menopausal gut microbiota is different from the pre-menopausal gut microbiota, as it is less diverse and lacks the mucolytic Akkermansia and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producers such as Faecalibacterium and Roseburia. Through various metabolites (SCFAs, secondary bile acid, and serotonin), the gut microbiota plays a significant role in regulating glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress, and T2D-associated pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6). While gut dysbiosis is common among post-menopausal women, dietary interventions such as probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics can ease post-menopausal gut dysbiosis. The objective of this review is to understand the relationship between post-menopausal gut dysbiosis and T2D-associated factors. Additionally, the study also provided dietary recommendations to avoid T2D progression among post-menopausal women.