Mammalian organs convert dietary nutrients into circulating metabolites and share them to maintain whole-body metabolic homeostasis. While the concentrations of circulating metabolites have been frequently measured in a variety of pathophysiological conditions, the exchange flux of circulating metabolites between organs is not easily measurable due to technical difficulties. Isotope tracing is useful for measuring such fluxes for a metabolite of interest, but the shuffling of isotopic atoms between metabolites requires mathematical modeling. Arteriovenous metabolite gradient measurements can complement isotope tracing to infer organ-specific net fluxes of many metabolites simultaneously. Here, we review the historical development of arteriovenous measurements and discuss their advantages and limitations with key example studies that have revealed metabolite exchange flux between organs in diverse pathophysiological contexts.