Recently, a number of studies reported that casein was composed of various multifunctional bioactive peptides such as casein phosphopeptide and β-casochemotide-1 that bind calcium ions and induce macrophage chemotaxis, which is crucial for bone homeostasis and bone fracture repair by cytokines secreted in the process. We hypothesized that the effects of the multifunctional biopeptides in casein would contribute to improving bone regeneration. Thus, we designed a tissue engineering platform that consisted of casein and polyvinyl alcohol, which was a physical-crosslinked scaffold (milk-derived protein; MDP), via simple freeze-thaw cycles and performed surface modification using 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (DOPA), a mussel adhesive protein, for immobilizing adhesive proteins and cytokines for recruiting cells in vivo (MDP-DOPA). Both the MDP and MDP-DOPA groups proved indirectly contribution of macrophages migration as RAW 264.7 cells were highly migrated toward materials by contained bioactive peptides. We implanted MDP and MDP-DOPA in a mouse calvarial defect orthotopic model and evaluated whether MDP-DOPA showed much faster mineral deposition and higher bone density than that of the no-treatment and MDP groups. The MDP-DOPA group showed the accumulation of host M2 macrophages and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) around the scaffold, whereas MDP presented mostly M1 macrophages in the early stage.