Dysregulation of adipose tissue plasmalogen metabolism is associated with obesity-related metabolic diseases. We report that feeding mice a high-fat diet reduces adipose tissue lysoplasmalogen levels and increases transmembrane protein 86 A (TMEM86A), a putative lysoplasmalogenase. Untargeted lipidomic analysis demonstrates that adipocyte-specific TMEM86A-knockout (AKO) increases lysoplasmalogen content in adipose tissue, including plasmenyl lysophosphatidylethanolamine 18:0 (LPE P-18:0). Surprisingly, TMEM86A AKO increases protein kinase A signalling pathways owing to inhibition of phosphodiesterase 3B and elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. TMEM86A AKO upregulates mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, elevates energy expenditure, and protects mice from metabolic dysfunction induced by high-fat feeding. Importantly, the effects of TMEM86A AKO are largely reproduced in vitro and in vivo by LPE P-18:0 supplementation. LPE P-18:0 levels are significantly lower in adipose tissue of human patients with obesity, suggesting that TMEM86A inhibition or lysoplasmalogen supplementation might be therapeutic approaches for preventing or treating obesity-related metabolic diseases.