Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed genital cancer in men worldwide. Among patients who developed advanced PCa, 80% suffered from bone metastasis, with a sharp drop in the survival rate. Despite great efforts, the detail of the mechanisms underlying castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) remain unclear. Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5), an NAD+-dependent desuccinylase, is hypothesized to be a key regulator of various cancers. However, compared to other SIRTs, the role of SIRT5 in cancer has not been extensively studied. Here, we showed significantly decreased SIRT5 levels in aggressive PCa cells relative to the PCa stages. The correlation between the decrease in the SIRT5 level and the patient’s survival rate was also confirmed. Using quantitative global succinylome analysis, we characterized a significant increase of lysine 118 succinylation (K118su) of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), which plays a role in increasing LDH activity. As a substrate of SIRT5, LDHA-K118su significantly increased the migration and invasion of PCa cells and LDH activity in PCa patients. This study investigated the reduction of SIRT5 and LDHA-K118su as a novel mechanism involved in PCa progression, which can also be proposed as a new target that can prevent CPRC progression, which is key to PCa treatment.