Vascular access is the lifeline for hemodialysis patients and the single most important component of the hemodialysis procedure. Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred vascular access for hemodialysis patients, but nearly 60% of AVFs created fail to successfully mature due to early intimal hyperplasia development and poor outward remodeling. There are currently no therapies available to prevent AVF maturation failure. First, we showed the important regulatory role of nitric oxide (NO) on AVF development by demonstrating that intimal hyperplasia development was reduced in an overexpressed endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) mouse AVF model. This supported the rationale for the potential application of NO to the AVF. Thus, we developed a self-assembled NO releasing nanomatrix gel and applied it perivascularly at the arteriovenous anastomosis immediately following rat AVF creation to investigate its therapeutic effect on AVF development. We demonstrated that the NO releasing nanomatrix gel inhibited intimal hyperplasia formation (more than 70% reduction), as well as improved vascular outward remodeling (increased vein diameter) and hemodynamic adaptation (lower wall shear stress approaching the preoperative level and less vorticity). Therefore, direct application of the NO releasing nanomatrix gel to the AVF anastomosis immediately following AVF creation may enhance AVF development, thereby providing long-term and durable vascular access for hemodialysis.
Keywords : Arteriovenous fistula, Nitric oxide, Endothelial nitric oxide synthase, Intimal hyperplasia, Vascular remodeling, And nitric oxide releasing nanomatrix gel