Membrane-enveloped viruses are a leading cause of viral epidemics, and there is an outstanding need to develop broad-spectrum antiviral strategies to treat and prevent enveloped virus infections. In this review, we critically discuss why the lipid membrane surrounding enveloped virus particles is a promising antiviral target and cover the latest progress in nanotechnology research to design and evaluate membrane-targeting virus inhibition strategies. These efforts span diverse topics such as nanomaterials, self-assembly, biosensors, nanomedicine, drug delivery, and medical devices and have excellent potential to support the development of next-generation antiviral drug candidates and technologies. Application examples in the areas of human medicine and agricultural biosecurity are also presented. Looking forward, research in this direction is poised to strengthen capabilities for virus pandemic preparedness and demonstrates how nanotechnology strategies can help to solve global health challenges related to infectious diseases.
KEYWORDS: virus, enveloped virus, antiviral, lipid membrane, peptide, biosensors, drug delivery, nanomedicine, pandemic, biosecurity