According to current paradigms, various risk factors, such as genetic mutations, oxidative stress, neural network dysfunction, and abnormal protein degradation, contribute to the progression of brain disorders. Through the cooperation of gene transcripts in biological processes, the study of noncoding RNAs can lead to insights into the cause and treatment of brain disorders. Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) which are longer than 200 nucleotides in length have been suggested as key factors in various brain disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests the potential of lncRNAs as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. High-throughput screening-based sequencing has been instrumental in identification of lncRNAs that demand new approaches to understanding the progression of brain disorders. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in the study of lncRNAs, and addresses the pathogenesis of brain disorders that involve lncRNAs and describes the associations of lncRNAs with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), and neurodevelopmental disorders. We also discuss potential targets of lncRNAs and their promise as novel therapeutics and biomarkers in brain disorders.