Bioadhesives such as tissue adhesives, hemostatic agents, and tissue sealants have potential advantages over sutures and staples for wound closure, hemostasis, and integration of implantable devices onto wet tissues. However, existing bioadhesives display several limitations including slow adhesion formation, weak bonding, low biocompatibility, poor mechanical match with tissues, and/or lack of triggerable benign detachment. Here, we report a bioadhesive that can form instant tough adhesion on various wet dynamic tissues and can be benignly detached from the adhered tissues on demand with a biocompatible triggering solution. The adhesion of the bioadhesive relies on the removal of interfacial water from the tissue surface, followed by physical and covalent cross-linking with the tissue surface. The triggerable detachment of the bioadhesive results from the cleavage of bioadhesive’s cross-links with the tissue surface by the triggering solution. After it is adhered to wet tissues, the bioadhesive becomes a tough hydrogel with mechanical compliance and stretchability comparable with those of soft tissues. We validate in vivo biocompatibility of the bioadhesive and the triggering solution in a rat model and demonstrate potential applications of the bioadhesive with triggerable benign detachment in ex vivo porcine models.
bioadhesive, wet adhesion, dry cross-linking, triggerable, hydrogel