Numerous genes whose mutations cause, or increase the risk of, Parkinson’s disease (PD) have been identified. An inactivating mutation (R258Q) in the Sac inositol phosphatase domain of synaptojanin 1 (SJ1/PARK20), a phosphoinositide phosphatase implicated in synaptic vesicle recycling, results in PD. The gene encoding Sac2/INPP5F, another Sac domain-containing protein, is located within a PD risk locus identified by genome-wide association studies. Knock-In mice carrying the SJ1 patient mutation (SJ1RQKI) exhibit PD features, while Sac2 knockout mice (Sac2KO) do not have obvious neurologic defects. We report a “synthetic” effect of the SJ1 mutation and the KO of Sac2 in mice. Most mice with both mutations died perinatally. The occasional survivors had stunted growth, died within 3 wk, and showed abnormalities of striatal dopaminergic nerve terminals at an earlier stage than SJ1RQKI mice. The abnormal accumulation of endocytic factors observed at synapses of cultured SJ1RQKI neurons was more severe in double-mutant neurons. Our results suggest that SJ1 and Sac2 have partially overlapping functions and are consistent with a potential role of Sac2 as a PD risk gene.
endocytosis, Sac2, synaptojanin 1, INPP5F, PI4P