Many clinical trials for cancer precision medicine have yielded unsatisfactory results due to challenges such as drug resistance and low efficacy. Drug resistance is often caused by the complex compensatory regulation within the biomolecular network in a cancer cell. Recently, systems biological studies have modeled and simulated such complex networks to unravel the hidden mechanisms of drug resistance and identify promising new drug targets or combinatorial or sequential treatments for overcoming resistance to anticancer drugs. However, many of the identified targets or treatments present major difficulties for drug development and clinical application. Nanocarriers represent a path forward for developing therapies with these “undruggable” targets or those that require precise combinatorial or sequential application, for which conventional drug delivery mechanisms are unsuitable. Conversely, a challenge in nanomedicine has been low efficacy due to heterogeneity of cancers in patients. This problem can also be resolved through systems biological approaches by identifying personalized targets for individual patients or promoting the drug responses. Therefore, integration of systems biology and nanomaterial engineering will enable the clinical application of cancer precision medicine to overcome both drug resistance of conventional treatments and low efficacy of nanomedicine due to patient heterogeneity.