Jae-Yeol Kim1,6, Bong-Kyu Choi2,6, Mal-Gi Choi3, Sun-Ae Kim4, Ying Lai4, Yeon-Kyun Shin4,5 and Nam Ki Lee1,2
1.Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Korea
2.School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Korea
3.Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Korea 4.Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
5.Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea
Yeon-Kyun Shin, Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3111, USA.
or Nam Ki Lee, Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784, Korea.
6These authors contributed equally to this work
Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) is a major Ca2+ sensor for synchronous neurotransmitter release, which requires vesicle fusion mediated by SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors). Syt1 utilizes its diverse interactions with target membrane (t-) SNARE, SNAREpin, and phospholipids, to regulate vesicle fusion. To dissect the functions of Syt1, we apply a single-molecule technique, alternating-laser excitation (ALEX), which is capable of sorting out subpopulations of fusion intermediates and measuring their kinetics in solution. The results show that Syt1 undergoes at least three distinct steps prior to lipid mixing. First, without Ca2+, Syt1 mediates vesicle docking by directly binding to t-SNARE/phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) complex and increases the docking rate by 103 times. Second, synaptobrevin-2 binding to t-SNARE displaces Syt1 from SNAREpin. Third, with Ca2+, Syt1 rebinds to SNAREpin, which again requires PIP2. Thus without Ca2+, Syt1 may bring vesicles to the plasma membrane in proximity via binding to t-SNARE/PIP2 to help SNAREpin formation and then, upon Ca2+ influx, it may rebind to SNAREpin, which may trigger synchronous fusion. The results show that ALEX is a powerful method to dissect multiple kinetic steps in the vesicle fusion pathway.
Keywords:alternating-laser excitation (ALEX); exocytosis; single-molecule FRET; SNARE; synaptotagmin-1