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2014년 노벨 화학상
2014년 노벨 화학상 저자 BRIC (생물학연구정보센터)
등록일 2014.10.13
자료번호 BRIC VIEW 2014-B09
조회 3755  인쇄하기 주소복사 트위터 공유 페이스북 공유 

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014
 


The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014 was awarded jointly to Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner "for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"..


스웨덴 노벨상위원회는 올해 노벨 화학상 수상자로 기존 광학현미경의 한계를 넘어서는 초고해상도 형광현미경을 개발한 에릭 베치그 미국 하워드휴즈의학연구소 그룹리더(54), 슈테판 헬 독일 막스플랑크연구소 생물물리화학연구소장(52), 윌리엄 머너 미국 스탠퍼드대 교수(61)를 선정했다고 밝혔다.

관련뉴스
- 2014 노벨 화학상 수상자: 세포의 내부세계를 드러낸 과학자들 (Bio통신원) 2014-10-10
- 빛의 한계 뛰어 넘은 과학자 3명 공동 수상 (동아사이언스) 2014-10-08
- 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Super-resolved fluorescence microscopy(Sciencedaily) 2014-10-08

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Press Release

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2014 to

Eric Betzig
Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA, USA,

Stefan W. Hell
Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Gottingen, and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany

and

William E. Moerner
Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

“for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy”


Surpassing the limitations of the light microscope
For a long time optical microscopy was held back by a presumed limitation: that it would never obtain a better resolution than half the wavelength of light. Helped by fluorescent molecules the Nobel Laureates in Chemistry 2014 ingeniously circumvented this limitation. Their ground-breaking work has brought optical microscopy into the nanodimension.

In what has become known as nanoscopy, scientists visualize the pathways of individual molecules inside living cells. They can see how molecules create synapses between nerve cells in the brain; they can track proteins involved in Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s diseases as they aggregate; they follow individual proteins in fertilized eggs as these divide into embryos.

It was all but obvious that scientists should ever be able to study living cells in the tiniest molecular detail. In 1873, the microscopist Ernst Abbe stipulated a physical limit for the maximum resolution of traditional optical microscopy: it could never become better than 0.2 micrometres. Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner are awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014 for having bypassed this limit. Due to their achievements the optical microscope can now peer into the nanoworld.

Two separate principles are rewarded. One enables the method stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, developed by Stefan Hell in 2000. Two laser beams are utilized; one stimulates fluorescent molecules to glow, another cancels out all fluorescence except for that in a nanometre-sized volume. Scanning over the sample, nanometre for nanometre, yields an image with a resolution better than Abbe’s stipulated limit.

Eric Betzig and William Moerner, working separately, laid the foundation for the second method, single-molecule microscopy. The method relies upon the possibility to turn the fluorescence of individual molecules on and off. Scientists image the same area multiple times, letting just a few interspersed molecules glow each time. Superimposing these images yields a dense super-image resolved at the nanolevel. In 2006 Eric Betzig utilized this method for the first time.

Today, nanoscopy is used world-wide and new knowledge of greatest benefit to mankind is produced on a daily basis.

Read more about this year's prize
Popular Information
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Scientific Background
Pdf 979 Kb

Eric Betzig

Eric Betzig, U.S. citizen. Born 1960 in Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Ph.D. 1988 from Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. Group Leader at Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA, USA.
http://janelia.org/lab/betzig-lab

Stefan W. Hell

Stefan W. Hell, German citizen. Born 1962 in Arad, Romania. Ph.D. 1990 from the University of Heidelberg, Germany. Director at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Gottingen, and Division head at the German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.
http://www3.mpibpc.mpg.de/groups/hell


William E. Moerner

William E. Moerner, U.S. citizen. Born 1953 in Pleasanton, CA, USA. Ph.D. 1982 from Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. Harry S. Mosher Professor in Chemistry and Professor, by courtesy, of Applied Physics at Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
http://web.stanford.edu/group/moerner


사진 및 내용 출처: "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014 - Press Release". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. 13 Oct 2014.  

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