The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is the primary regulatory module of various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and stress responses. This pathway converts external stimuli to cellular responses via three major kinases: mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK), and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK). Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification of proteins with ubiquitin, which results in the formation of mono- or poly-ubiquitin chains of substrate proteins. Conversely, removal of the ubiquitin by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) is known as deubiquitination. This review summarizes mechanisms of the MAPK signaling pathways (ERK1/2, ERK5, p38, and JNK1/2/3 signaling pathway) in cancers, and of E3 ligases and DUBs that target the MAPK signaling components such as Raf, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, MEKK2/3, MEKK1-4, TAK1, DLK1, MLK1-4, ASK1/2, and MKK3-7.