Strategies, advances, and challenges associated with the use of graphene-based nanocomposites for electrochemical biosensors
Authors and Affiliations
Graphene is an intriguing two-dimensional honeycomb-like carbon material with a unique basal plane structure, charge carrier mobility, thermal conductivity, wide electrochemical spectrum, and unusual physicochemical properties. Therefore, it has attracted considerable scientific interest in the field of nanoscience and bionanotechnology. The high specific surface area of graphene allows it to support high biomolecule loading for good detection sensitivity. As such, graphene, graphene oxide (GO), and reduced GO are excellent materials for the fabrication of new nanocomposites and electrochemical sensors. Graphene has been widely used as a chemical building block and/or scaffold with various materials to create highly sensitive and selective electrochemical sensing microdevices. Over the past decade, significant advancements have been made by utilizing graphene and graphene-based nanocomposites to design electrochemical sensors with enhanced analytical performance. This review focus on the synthetic strategies, as well as the structure-to-function studies of graphene, electrochemistry, novel multi nanocomposites combining graphene, limit of detection, stability, sensitivity, assay time. Finally, the review describes the challenges, strategies and outlook on the future development of graphene sensors technology that would be usable for the internet of things are also highlighted.