Recently, the development of nanotechnology (NTC) has been considered as a promising revolution in designing and fabricating biomedical systems with applications for point-of-care tests (POCTs), smartphone technology, and wearable electronics for self-testing. Although many new devices have been introduced, there is still a need for rapid and accurate self-test kits. We summarize the recent progress in NTC toward POCT devices for self-diagnosis of disease. This review focuses on the potential application of self-test devices and the possible technologies that would support their development, differentiating this review from the plethora of reviews on progress in POCT. Furthermore, we review how NTC has been implemented for designing and deploying devices capable of NTC-related self-sampling and self-diagnosis with naked-eye readable systems as user-friendly, at-home tests. Future perspectives on integrated and automated micro-/nano-sampling detection systems compatible with mobile/hand-held and wearable devices for improved management of communicable and non-communicable diseases are discussed.