Electricity constitutes a natural biophysical component that preserves tissue homeostasis and modulates many biological processes, including the repair of damaged tissues. Wound healing involves intricate cellular events, such as inflammation, angiogenesis, matrix synthesis, and epithelialization whereby multiple cell types sense the environmental cues to rebuild the structure and functions. Here, we report that electricity auto-generating glucose-responsive enzymatic-biofuel-cell (EBC) skin patch stimulates the wound healing process. Rat wounded-skin model and in vitro cell cultures showed that EBC accelerated wound healing by modulating inflammation while stimulating angiogenesis, fibroblast fuctionality and matrix synthesis. Of note, EBC-activated cellular bahaviors were linked to the signalings involved with calcium influx, which predominantly dependent on the mechanosensitive ion channels, primarily Piezo1. Inhibition of Piezo1-receptor impaired the EBC-induced key functions of both fibroblasts and endothelial cells in the wound healing. This study highlights the significant roles of electricity played in wound healing through activated mechanosensitive ion channels and the calcium influx, and suggests the possibility of the electricity auto-generating EBC-based skin patch for use as a wound healing device.
Keywords : Wound healing, Electricity generation, Enzymatic biofuel cell, Ion channel, Piezo1