Membrane-less organelles or compartments are considered to be dynamic reaction centers for spatiotemporal control of diverse cellular processes in eukaryotic cells. Although their formation mechanisms have been steadily elucidated via the classical concept of liquid–liquid phase separation, biomolecular behaviors such as protein interactions inside these liquid compartments have been largely unexplored. Here we report quantitative measurements of changes in protein interactions for the proteins recruited into membrane-less compartments (termed client proteins) in living cells. Under a wide range of phase separation conditions, protein interaction signals were vastly increased only inside compartments, indicating greatly enhanced proximity between recruited client proteins. By employing an in vitro phase separation model, we discovered that the operational proximity of clients (measured from client–client interactions) could be over 16 times higher than the expected proximity from actual client concentrations inside compartments. We propose that two aspects should be considered when explaining client proximity enhancement by phase separation compartmentalization: (1) clients are selectively recruited into compartments, leading to concentration enrichment, and more importantly, (2) recruited clients are further localized around compartment-forming scaffold protein networks, which results in even higher client proximity.