Current techniques for Gram-typing and for diagnosing a pathogen at the early infection stage rely on Gram stains, cultures, Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and gene microarrays, which are labor-intensive and time-consuming approaches. In addition, a delayed or imprecise diagnosis of clinical pathogenic bacteria leads to a life-threatening emergency or overuse of antibiotics and a high-rate occurrence of antimicrobial-resistance microbes. Herein, we report high-performance antibiotics (as bioprobes) conjugated graphene micropattern field-effect transistors (ABX-GMFETs) to facilitate on-site Gram-typing and help in the detection of the presence or absence of Gram-negative and -positive bacteria in the samples. The ABX-GMFET platform, which consists of recognition probes and GM transistors conjugated with novel interfacing chemical compounds, was integrated into the microfluidics to minimize the required human intervention and facilitate automation. The mechanism of binding of ABX-GMFET was based on a charge or chemical moiety interaction between the bioprobes and target bacteria. Subsequently, ABX-GMFETs exhibited unprecedented high sensitivity with a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 CFU/mL (1–9 CFU/mL), real-time target specificity.
Keywords : Portable biosensor; Graphene field-effect transistor; Interfacing chemistry; Microfluidics; Real-time monitoring; Bioprobes