Cholera remains a public health threat among the least privileged populations and regions affected by conflicts and natural disasters. Together with Water, Sanitation and Hygiene practices, use of oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) is a key tool to prevent cholera. Bivalent whole-cell killed OCVs have been extensively used worldwide and found effective in protecting populations against cholera in endemic and outbreak settings. No cholera vaccine had been available for United States (US) travelers at risk for decades until 2016 when CVD 103-HgR (Vaxchora™), an oral live attenuated vaccine, was licensed by the US FDA. A single dose of Vaxchora™ protected US volunteers against experimental challenge 10 days and 3 months after vaccination. However, use of Vaxchora™ poses several challenges in resource poor settings as it requires reconstitution, is age-restricted to 18 to 64 years, has no data in populations endemic for cholera, and faces challenges related to cold chain and cost.
KEYWORDS: Cholera, oral cholera vaccine, live attenuated