Stem cell–derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) offer alternative approaches to stem cell–based therapy for regenerative medicine. In this study, stem cell EVs derived during differentiation are developed to use as cell-free therapeutic systems by inducing tissue-specific differentiation. EVs are isolated from human adipose-derived stem cells (HASCs) during white and beige adipogenic differentiation (D-EV and BD-EV, respectively) via tangential flow filtration. D-EV and BD-EV can successfully differentiate HASCs into white and beige adipocytes, respectively. D-EV are transplanted with collagen/methylcellulose hydrogels on the backs of BALB/c mice, and they produce numerous lipid droplets in injected sites. Treatments of BD-EV attenuate diet-induced obesity through browning of adipose tissue in mice. Furthermore, high-fat diet–induced hepatic steatosis and glucose tolerance are improved by BD-EV treatment. miRNAs are responsible for the observed effects of BD-EV. These results reveal that secreted EVs during stem cell differentiation into white adipocytes or beige adipocytes can promote cell reprogramming.