Plant-associated microbiomes, which are shaped by host and environmental factors, support their hosts by providing nutrients and attenuating abiotic and biotic stresses. Although host genetic factors involved in plant growth and immunity are known to shape compositions of microbial communities, the effects of host evolution on microbial communities are not well understood.
We show evidence that both host speciation and domestication shape seed bacterial and fungal community structures. Genome types of rice contributed to compositional variations of both communities, showing a significant phylosymbiosis with microbial composition. Following the domestication, abundance inequality of bacterial and fungal communities also commonly increased. However, composition of bacterial community was relatively conserved, whereas fungal membership was dramatically changed. These domestication effects were further corroborated when analyzed by a random forest model. With these changes, hub taxa of inter-kingdom networks were also shifted from fungi to bacteria by domestication. Furthermore, maternal inheritance of microbiota was revealed as a major path of microbial transmission across generations.
Our findings show that evolutionary processes stochastically affect overall composition of microbial communities, whereas dramatic changes in environments during domestication contribute to assembly of microbiotas in deterministic ways in rice seed. This study further provides new insights on host evolution and microbiome, the starting point of the holobiome of plants, microbial communities, and surrounding environments.