The common long-arm octopus (Octopus minor) is found in mudflats of subtidal zones and faces numerous environmental challenges. The ability to adapt its morphology and behavioural repertoire to diverse environmental conditions makes the species a promising model to understand genomic adaptation and evolution in cephalopods.
The final genome assembly of O. minor is 5.09 Gb, with a contig N50 size of 197 kb and longest size of 3.027 Mb, from a total of 419 Gb raw reads generated using PacBio RS II platform. We identified 30,010 genes and 44.43% of the genome is composed of repeat elements. The genome-wide phylogenetic tree indicated the divergence time between O. minor and O. bimaculoides was estimated to be 43 million years ago (Mya) based on single-copy orthologous genes. In total, 178 gene families are expanded in O. minor in the 14 bilaterian species.
We found that the O. minor genome was larger than that of closely related O. bimaculoides, and this difference could be explained by enlarged introns and recently diversified transposable elements. The high-quality O. minor genome assembly provides a valuable resource for understanding octopus genome evolution and the molecular basis of adaptations to mudflats.