Purpose: Gastric adenoma (GA) is a premalignant lesion that precedes intestinal-type gastric carcinoma (GC). However, genetic progression mechanisms from GA to GC have not been clarified.
Experimental Design: We performed whole-exome sequencing?based mutational analyses for 15 synchronous pairs of attached GAs and GCs.
Results: There was no significant difference in the number of driver mutations or copy-number alterations between GAs and GCs. Well-known mutations of TP53, APC, RNF43, and RPL22 were recurrently detected in synchronous GA/GC pairs. In addition, we discovered novel KDM6A, PREX2, FAT1, KMT2C, GLI3, and RPL22 mutations and hypermutation in GAs, but did not identify recurrent drivers for GA-to-GC progression. Clonal structure analyses revealed that most GA/GC pairs exhibit parallel evolution with early divergence rather than stepwise evolution during GA-to-GC progression. Of note, three cases were identified as clonally nonrelated GA/GC pairs despite the lack of histologic differences. We found differences in dominant mutational signatures 1, 6, 15, and 17 in GA/GC trunks, GA branches, and GC branches. Compared with our previous work on synchronous colon adenoma/carcinoma genome structures, where most drivers were in the trunk with parallel evolution, synchronous GA/GC genomes showed a different model of parallel evolution, with many drivers in the branches.
Conclusions: The preferred sequence of mutational events during GA-to-GC progression might be more context-dependent than colon adenoma progression. Our results show that nonclonal synchronous GA/GC is common and that GA genomes have already acquired distinct genomic alterations, suggesting caution in the diagnosis of synchronous GA and GC, especially in residual or recurrent cases.