Cooperative interactions between seed-borne bacterial and air-borne fungal pathogens on rice
Authors and Affiliations
Bacterial-fungal interactions are widely found in distinct environments and contribute to ecosystem processes. Previous studies of these interactions have mostly been performed in soil, and only limited studies of aerial plant tissues have been conducted. Here we show that a seed-borne plant pathogenic bacterium, Burkholderia glumae (Bg), and an air-borne plant pathogenic fungus, Fusarium graminearum (Fg), interact to promote bacterial survival, bacterial and fungal dispersal, and disease progression on rice plants, despite the production of antifungal toxoflavin by Bg. We perform assays of toxoflavin sensitivity, RNA-seq analyses, lipid staining and measures of triacylglyceride content to show that triacylglycerides containing linolenic acid mediate resistance to reactive oxygen species that are generated in response to toxoflavin in Fg. As a result, Bg is able to physically attach to Fg to achieve rapid and expansive dispersal to enhance disease severity.