Sae Ryun Ahn†¶, Ji Hyun An‡¶, Hyun Seok Song⊥, Jin Wook Park‡, Sang Hun Lee§, Jae Hyun Kim∥, Jyongsik Jang*‡, and Tai Hyun Park*†∇
† School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Bio-MAX Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744, Republic of Korea
‡ School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744, Republic of Korea
⊥ Division of Bioconvergence Analysis, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), Yuseong, Daejeon 169-148, Republic of Korea
§ Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, United States
∥ S.LSI Material Technology Group, Device Solutions, Samsung Electronics, 1, Samsung-ro, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-711, Korea
∇ Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-270, Republic of Korea
¶S.R.A. and J.H.A. contributed equally to this study.
For several decades, significant efforts have been made in developing artificial taste sensors to recognize the five basic tastes. So far, the well-established taste sensor is an E-tongue, which is constructed with polymer and lipid membranes. However, the previous artificial taste sensors have limitations in various food, beverage, and cosmetic industries because of their failure to mimic human taste reception. There are many interactions between tastants. Therefore, detecting the interactions in a multiplexing system is required. Herein, we developed a duplex bioelectronic tongue (DBT) based on graphene field-effect transistors that were functionalized with heterodimeric human umami taste and sweet taste receptor nanovesicles. Two types of nanovesicles, which have human T1R1/T1R3 for the umami taste and human T1R2/T1R3 for the sweet taste on their membranes, immobilized on micropatterned graphene surfaces were used for the simultaneous detection of the umami and sweet tastants. The DBT platform led to highly sensitive and selective recognition of target tastants at low concentrations (ca. 100 nM). Moreover, our DBT was able to detect the enhancing effect of taste enhancers as in a human taste sensory system. This technique can be a useful tool for the detection of tastes instead of sensory evaluation and development of new artificial tastants in the food and beverage industry.
Keywords: bioelectronic tongue; duplex taste sensor; field-effect transistor (FET); G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR); graphene; nanovesicle; taste receptor