Jungeun Lee1,2 and Ilha Lee1,2,*
1National Research Laboratory of Plant Developmental Genetics, School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742, Korea
2Global Research Laboratory for Flowering at SNU and UW, Seoul 151-742, Korea
*To whom correspondence should be addressed
SOC1, encoding a MADS box transcription factor, integrates multiple flowering signals derived from photoperiod, temperature, hormone, and age-related signals. SOC1 is regulated by two antagonistic flowering regulators, CONSTANS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), which act as floral activator and repressor, respectively. CO activates SOC1 mainly through FT but FLC represses SOC1 by direct binding to the promoter. SOC1 is also activated by an age-dependent mechanism in which SPL9 and microRNA156 are involved. When SOC1 is induced at the shoot apex, SOC1 together with AGL24 directly activates LEAFY (LFY), a floral meristem identity gene. APETALA1 (AP1), activated mainly by FT, is also necessary to establish and maintain flower meristem identity. When LFY and AP1 are established, flower development occurs at the anlagen of shoot apical meristem according to the ABC model. During early flower development, AP1 activates the A function and represses three redundantly functioning flowering time genes, SOC1, AGL24, and SVP to prevent floral reversion. During late flower development, such repression is also necessary to activate SEPALATA3 (SEP3) which is a coactivator of B and C function genes with LFY, otherwise SEP3 is suppressed by SOC1, AGL24, and SVP. Therefore, SOC1 is necessary to prevent premature differentiation of the floral meristem.
Key words : Flower development, flowering, integrator, SOC1