G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and PPARγ agonists each have insulin sensitizing effects. But whether these two pathways functionally interact and can be leveraged together to markedly improve insulin resistance has not been explored. Here, we show that treatment with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (Rosi) plus the GPR120 agonist Compound A leads to additive effects to improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but at lower doses of Rosi, thus avoiding its known side effects. Mechanistically, we show that GPR120 is a PPARγ target gene in adipocytes, while GPR120 augments PPARγ activity by inducing the endogenous ligand 15d-PGJ2 and by blocking ERK-mediated inhibition of PPARγ. Further, we used macrophage- (MKO) or adipocyte-specific GPR120 KO (AKO) mice to show that GRP120 has anti-inflammatory effects via macrophages while working with PPARγ in adipocytes to increase insulin sensitivity. These results raise the prospect of a safer way to increase insulin sensitization in the clinic.
Keywords : GPR120; PPARγ; thiazolidinedione; Compound A; type 2 diabetes; insulin resistance; combination therapy; 15d-PGJ2