Eun-Young Lee 1, Jungwon Hwang 1 and Myung Hee Kim 1,*
1Microbiome Convergence Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon 34141, Korea.
*Corresponding author: correspondence to Myung Hee Kim
Ubiquitously expressed aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases play essential roles in decoding genetic information required for protein synthesis in every living species. Growing evidence suggests that they also function as crossover mediators of multiple biological processes required for homeostasis. In humans, eight cytoplasmic tRNA synthetases form a central machinery called the multi-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC). The formation of MSCs appears to be essential for life, although the role of MSCs remains unclear. Glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase 1 (EPRS1) is the most evolutionarily derived component within the MSC that plays a critical role in immunity and metabolism (beyond its catalytic role in translation) via stimulus-dependent phosphorylation events. This review focuses on the role of EPRS1 signaling in inflammation resolution and metabolic modulation. The involvement of EPRS1 in diseases such as cancer is also discussed.