GBD 2019 Peripheral Artery Disease Collaborators*
Min Seo Kim †, Jimin Hwang †, Dong Keon Yon †, Seung Won Lee †, Se Yong Jung, Seoyeon Park, Catherine Owens Johnson, Benjamin A Stark, Christian Razo, Mohammadreza Abbasian, Hedayat Abbastabar, Amir Parsa Abhari, Victor Aboyans, Denberu Eshetie Adane Adane, Oladimeji M Adebayo, Fares Alahdab, Sami Almustanyir, Hany Aly, Edward Kwabena Ameyaw, Jason A Anderson, Catalina Liliana Andrei, Zahra Aryan, Avinash Aujayeb, Sara Bagherieh, Ovidiu Constantin Baltatu, Maciej Banach, Nebiyou Simegnew Bayileyegn, Lindsay M Bearne, Amir Hossein Behnoush, Isabela M Bensenor, Sonu Bhaskar, Ajay Nagesh Bhat, Vivek Bhat, Boris Bikbov, Bagas Suryo Bintoro, Katrin Burkart, Luis Alberto Cámera, Alberico L Catapano, Eeshwar K Chandrasekar, Jaykaran Charan, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Gerald Chi, Isaac Sunday Chukwu, Sheng-Chia Chung, Massimo Cirillo, Kaleb Coberly, Vera Marisa Costa, Omid Dadras, Xiaochen Dai, Thanh Chi Do, Rajkumar Doshi, Michael Ekholuenetale, Islam Y Elgendy, Muhammed Elhadi, Adeniyi Francis Fagbamigbe, Alireza Feizkhah, Ginenus Fekadu, Paramjit Singh Gill, Mohamad Goldust, Mahaveer Golechha, Shi-Yang Guan, Vivek Kumar Gupta, Mostafa Hadei, Najah R Hadi, Ahmad Hammoud, Graeme J Hankey, Netanja I Harlianto, Ahmed I Hasaballah, Shoaib Hassan, Mohammed Bheser Hassen, Golnaz Heidari, Mihaela Hostiuc, Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi, Masao Iwagami, Mohammad Jokar, Jost B Jonas, Charity Ehimwenma Joshua, Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak, Sina Kazemian, Mohammad Keykhaei, Amirmohammad Khalaji, Moien AB Khan, Sorour Khateri, Biruk Getahun Kibret, Oleksii Korzh, Sindhura Lakshmi Koulmane Laxminarayana, Kewal Krishan, Akshay Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Ambily Kuttikkattu, Tri Laksono, Bagher Larijani, Thao Thi Thu Le, Stephen S Lim, Xuefeng Liu, Stefan Lorkowski, Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek, Kashish Malhotra, Yosef Manla, Andrea Maugeri, Alexios-Fotios A Mentis, Tomislav Mestrovic, Ana Carolina Micheletti Gomide Nogueira de Sá, Andreea Mirica, Erkin M Mirrakhimov, Awoke Misganaw, Manish Mishra, Yousef Mohammad, Ali H Mokdad, Mohammad Ali Moni, Ahmed Al Montasir, Yousef Moradi, Paula Moraga, Negar Morovatdar, Seyed Ali Mousavi-Aghdas, Christopher J L Murray, Mohsen Naghavi, Tapas Sadasivan Nair, Hasan Nassereldine, Zuhair S Natto, Dang H Nguyen, Hien Quang Nguyen, Van Thanh Nguyen, Jean Jacques Noubiap, Bogdan Oancea, Gláucia Maria Moraes Oliveira, Mayowa O Owolabi, Alicia Padron-Monedero, Norberto Perico, Ionela-Roxana Petcu, Amir Radfar, Quinn Rafferty, Mosiur Rahman, Muhammad Aziz Rahman, Pradhum Ram, Sina Rashedi, Ahmed Mustafa Rashid, Salman Rawaf, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Andre M N Renzaho, Malihe Rezaee, Leonardo Roever, Aly M A Saad, Seyedmohammad Saadatagah, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Mohamed A Saleh, Abdallah M Samy, Milena M Santric-Milicevic, Sadaf G Sepanlou, Allen Seylani, Sadaf Sharfaei, Seyed Afshin Shorofi, Jasvinder A Singh, Paramdeep Singh, Michael Spartalis, Johan Sundström, Ker-Kan Tan, Masayuki Teramoto, Samar Tharwat, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Sahel Valadan Tahbaz, Jef Van den Eynde, Priya Vart, Cong Wang, Fang Wang, Ronny Westerman, Juan Xia, Suowen Xu, Dereje Y Yada, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Naohiro Yonemoto, Mazyar Zahir, Moein Zangiabadian, Armin Zarrintan, Mikhail Sergeevich Zastrozhin, Anasthasia Zastrozhina, Mohammad Zoladl, Simon I Hay, Jae Il Shin, Gregory A Roth
*Collaborators are listed at the end of the Article
Correspondence to: Prof Jae Il Shin
Peripheral artery disease is a growing public health problem. We aimed to estimate the global disease burden of peripheral artery disease, its risk factors, and temporospatial trends to inform policy and public measures.
Data on peripheral artery disease were modelled using the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 database. Prevalence, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and mortality estimates of peripheral artery disease were extracted from GBD 2019. Total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rate of peripheral artery disease attributed to modifiable risk factors were also assessed.
In 2019, the number of people aged 40 years and older with peripheral artery disease was 113 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 99·2–128·4), with a global prevalence of 1·52% (95% UI 1·33–1·72), of which 42·6% was in countries with low to middle Socio-demographic Index (SDI). The global prevalence of peripheral artery disease was higher in older people, (14·91% [12·41–17·87] in those aged 80–84 years), and was generally higher in females than in males. Globally, the total number of DALYs attributable to modifiable risk factors in 2019 accounted for 69·4% (64·2–74·3) of total peripheral artery disease DALYs. The prevalence of peripheral artery disease was highest in countries with high SDI and lowest in countries with low SDI, whereas DALY and mortality rates showed U-shaped curves, with the highest burden in the high and low SDI quintiles.
The total number of people with peripheral artery disease has increased globally from 1990 to 2019. Despite the lower prevalence of peripheral artery disease in males and low-income countries, these groups showed similar DALY rates to females and higher-income countries, highlighting disproportionate burden in these groups. Modifiable risk factors were responsible for around 70% of the global peripheral artery disease burden. Public measures could mitigate the burden of peripheral artery disease by modifying risk factors.