Department of Brain Sciences, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology (DGIST), Daegu, South Korea
Corresponding author : Kwang Lee
The tremendous technical progress in neuroscience offers opportunities to observe a more minor or/and broader dynamic picture of the brain. Moreover, the large-scale neural activity of individual neurons enables the dissection of detailed mechanistic links between neural populations and behaviors. To measure neural activity in-vivo, multi-neuron recording, and neuroimaging techniques are employed and developed to acquire more neurons. The tools introduced concurrently recorded dozens to hundreds of neurons in the coordinated brain regions and elucidated the neuronal ensembles from a massive population perspective of diverse neurons at cellular resolution. In particular, the increasing spatiotemporal resolution of neuronal monitoring across the whole brain dramatically facilitates our understanding of additional nervous system functions in health and disease. Here, we will introduce state-of-the-art neuroscience tools involving large-scale neural population recording and the long-range connections spanning multiple brain regions. Their synergic effects provide to clarify the controversial circuitry underlying neuroscience. These challenging neural tools present a promising outlook for the fundamental dynamic interplay across levels of synaptic cellular, circuit organization, and brain-wide. Hence, more observations of neural dynamics will provide more clues to elucidate brain functions and push forward innovative technology at the intersection of neural engineering disciplines. We hope this review will provide insight into the use or development of recent neural techniques considering spatiotemporal scales of brain observation.