Sayan Deb Dutta a,b, Tejal V. Patil a,c, Keya Ganguly a, Aayushi Randhawa a,c, Rumi Acharya a,c, Md Moniruzzaman d, Ki-Taek Lim a,b,c
aDepartment of Biosystems Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea
bInstitue of Forest Science, Department of Biosystems Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea
cInterdisciplinary Program in Smart Agriculture, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea
dDepartment of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do 13120, Republic of Korea
Corresponding author : Ki-Taek Lim
Dynamic tracking of cell migration during tissue regeneration remains challenging owing to imaging techniques that require sophisticated devices, are often lethal to healthy tissues. Herein, we developed a 3D printable non-invasive polymeric hydrogel based on 2,2,6,6-(tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl) oxyl (TEMPO)-oxidized nanocellulose (T-CNCs) and carbon dots (CDs) for the dynamic tracking of cells. The as-prepared T-CNC@CDs were used to fabricate a liquid bio-resin containing gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (GPCD) for digital light processing (DLP) bioprinting. The shear-thinning properties of the GPCD bio-resin were further improved by the addition of T-CNC@CDs, allowing high-resolution 3D printing and bioprinting of human cells with higher cytocompatibility (viability ∼95 %). The elastic modulus of the printed GPCD hydrogel was found to be ∼13 ± 4.2 kPa, which is ideal for soft tissue engineering. The as-fabricated hydrogel scaffold exhibited tunable structural color property owing to the addition of T-CNC@CDs. Owing to the unique fluorescent property of T-CNC@CDs, the human skin cells could be tracked within the GPCD hydrogel up to 30 days post-printing. Therefore, we anticipate that GPCD bio-resin can be used for 3D bioprinting with high structural stability, dynamic tractability, and tunable mechanical stiffness for image-guided tissue regeneration.