Solmaz Karamikamkar 1, Ezgi Pinar Yalcintas 1, Reihaneh Haghniaz 1, Natan Roberto de Barros 1, Marvin Mecwan 1, Rohollah Nasiri 1, Elham Davoodi 1,2, Fatemeh Nasrollahi 1,3, Ahmet Erdem 4, Heemin Kang 5, Junmin Lee 6, Yangzhi Zhu 1, Samad Ahadian 1, Vadim Jucaud 1, Hajar Maleki 7,8, Mehmet Remzi Dokmeci 1, Han-Jun Kim 1,9, Ali Khademhosseini 1
1Terasaki Institute for Biomedical Innovation (TIBI), Los Angeles, CA, 90024, USA.
2Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.
3Department of Bioengineering, University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.
4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kocaeli University, Umuttepe Campus, Kocaeli, 41001, Turkey.
5Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea.
6Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, 37673, Republic of Korea.
7Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Cologne, Greinstraße 6, 50939, Cologne, Germany.
8Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, CMMC Research Center, Robert-Koch-Str. 21, 50931, Cologne, Germany.
9College of Pharmacy, Korea University, Sejong, 30019, Republic of Korea.
CORRESPONDING AUTHORS : Solmaz Karamikamkar, Han-Jun Kim, Ali Khademhosseini
Aerogel-based biomaterials are increasingly being considered for biomedical applications due to their unique properties such as high porosity, hierarchical porous network, and large specific pore surface area. Depending on the pore size of the aerogel, biological effects such as cell adhesion, fluid absorption, oxygen permeability, and metabolite exchange can be altered. Based on the diverse potential of aerogels in biomedical applications, this paper provides a comprehensive review of fabrication processes including sol-gel, aging, drying, and self-assembly along with the materials that can be used to form aerogels. In addition to the technology utilizing aerogel itself, it also provides insight into the applicability of aerogel based on additive manufacturing technology. To this end, how microfluidic-based technologies and 3D printing can be combined with aerogel-based materials for biomedical applications is discussed. Furthermore, previously reported examples of aerogels for regenerative medicine and biomedical applications are thoroughly reviewed. A wide range of applications with aerogels including wound healing, drug delivery, tissue engineering, and diagnostics are demonstrated. Finally, the prospects for aerogel-based biomedical applications are presented. The understanding of the fabrication, modification, and applicability of aerogels through this study is expected to shed light on the biomedical utilization of aerogels.