Jehyung Ok 1, Sumin Park 2, Yei Hwan Jung 2, Tae-Il Kim 3
1School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon, 16419, Republic of Korea.
2Department of Electronic Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 04763, Republic of Korea.
3School of Chemical Engineering, and Biomedical Institute for Convergence at SKKU (BICS), Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon, 16419, Republic of Korea.
CORRESPONDING AUTHORS: Yei Hwan Jung, Tae-Il Kim
Cortisol is a steroid hormone that is released from the body in response to stress. Although a moderate level of cortisol secretion can help the body maintain homeostasis, excessive secretion can cause various diseases, such as depression and anxiety. Conventional methods for cortisol measurement undergo procedures that limit continuous monitoring, typically collecting samples of bodily fluids, followed by separate analysis in a laboratory setting that takes several hours. Thus, recent studies demonstrate wearable, miniaturized sensors integrated with electronic modules that enable wireless real-time analysis. In this review, we primarily focus on wearable and implantable electronic devices that continuously measure cortisol concentration. We discuss diverse types of cortisol sensing techniques, such as antibody-, DNA aptamer-, and molecularly imprinted polymer-based sensors, as well as wearable and implantable devices that aim to continuously monitor cortisol in a minimally invasive fashion. In addition to the cortisol monitors that directly measure stress levels, we also summarize other schemes that indirectly measure stress, such as electrophysiological signals and sweat. Finally, we review the challenges and future directions in stress monitoring and management electronics.