Badrinathan Sridharan, Hae Gyun Lim
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan, 48513, Republic of Korea
Corresponding author : Hae Gyun Lim
Biomaterials and pertaining formulations have been very successful in various diagnostic and therapeutic applications because of its ability to overcome pharmacological limitations. Some of them have gained significant focus in the recent decade for their theranostic properties. Exosomes can be grouped as biomaterials, since they consist of various biological micro/macromolecules and possess all the properties of a stable biomaterial with size in nano range. Significant research has gone into isolation and exploitation of exosomes as potential theranostic agent. However, the limitations in terms of yield, efficacy, and target specificity are continuously being addressed. On the other hand, several nano/microformulations are responsive to physical or chemical alterations and were successfully stimulated by tweaking the physical characteristics of the surrounding environment they are in. Some of them are termed as photodynamic, sonodynamic or thermodynamic therapeutic systems. In this regard, ultrasound and acoustic systems were extensively studied for its ability towards altering the properties of the systems to which they were applied on. In this review, we have detailed about the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of exosomes and ultrasound separately, consisting of their conventional applications, drawbacks, and developments for addressing the challenges. The information were categorized into various sections that provide complete overview of the isolation strategies and theranostic applications of exosomes in various diseases. Then the ultrasound-based disease diagnosis and therapy were elaborated, with special interest towards the use of ultrasound in enhancing the efficacy of nanomedicines and nanodrug delivery systems, Finally, we discussed about the ability of ultrasound in enhancing the diagnostic and therapeutic properties of exosomes, which could be the future of theranostics.