Rachmi Luthfikasari, Tejal V. Patil, Dinesh K. Patel, Sayan Deb Dutta, Keya Ganguly, Maria Mercedes Espinal, and Ki-Taek Lim*
R. Luthfikasari, T. V. Patil, S. D. Dutta, K. Ganguly, M. M. Espinal, K.-T. Lim
Department of Biosystems Engineering Kangwon National University Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea
T. V. Patil, K.-T. Lim
Interdisiplinary Program in Smart Agriculture Kangwon National University Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea
D. K. Patel, K.-T. Lim
Institute of Forest Science Kangwon National University Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea
R.L. and T.V.P. contributed equally to this work.
Plants are anatomically and physiologically different from humans and animals; however, there are several possibilities to utilize the unique structures and physiological systems of plants and adapt them to new emerging technologies through a strategic biomimetic approach. Moreover, plants provide safe and sustainable results that can potentially solve the problem of mass-producing practical materials with hazardous and toxic side effects, particularly in the biomedical field, which requires high biocompatibility. In this review, it is investigated how micro–nanostructures available in plants (e.g., nanoparticles, nanofibers and their composites, nanoporous materials, and natural micromotors) are adapted and utilized in the design of suitable materials for a micro–nanorobot platform. How plants’ work on micro- and nanoscale systems (e.g., surface roughness, osmotically induced movements such as nastic and tropic, and energy conversion and harvesting) that are unique to plants, can provide functionality on the platform and become further prospective resources are examined. Furthermore, implementation across organisms and fields, which is promising for future practical applications of the plant-actuated micro–nanorobot platform, especially on biomedical applications, is discussed. Finally, the challenges following its implementation in the micro–nanorobot platform are also presented to provide advanced adaptation in the future.