Yangzhi Zhu#,*, Shaopei Li#, Jinghang Li#, Natashya Falcone, Qingyu Cui, Shilp Shah, Martin C. Hartel, Ning Yu, Patric Young, Natan Roberto de Barros, Zhuohong Wu, Reihaneh Haghniaz, Menekse Ermis, Canran Wang, Heemin Kang, Junmin Lee, Solmaz Karamikamkar, Samad Ahadian, Vadim Jucaud, Mehmet R. Dokmeci, Han-Jun Kim*, Ali Khademhosseini*
Y. Zhu, S. Li, J. Li, N. Falcone, S. Shah, M. Hartel, P. Young, N. Barros, R. Haghniaz, M. Ermis, J. Lee, S. Karamikamkar, S. Ahadian, V. Jucaud, M. Dokmeci, H. Kim, A. Khademhosseini.
Terasaki Institute for Biomedical Innovation, Los Angeles, California 90064, United States
School of Engineering, Westlake University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310024, China
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 430205, China
4Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, United States
5Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California-Riverside, Riverside, California 92521, United States
S. Shah, M. Hartel
Department of Bioengineering, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, United States
Department of Nanoengineering, University of California-San Diego, San Diego, California 92093, United States
Andrew and Peggy Cherng Department of Medical Engineering, Division of Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 USA
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea.
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang37673, Republic of Korea.
*To whom correspondence should be addressed.
The eye is one of the most complex organs in the human body, containing rich and critical physiological information (e.g., intraocular pressure, corneal temperature, and pH) as well as a library of metabolite biomarkers (e.g., glucose, proteins, and specific ions). Smart contact lenses (SCLs) can serve as a wearable intelligent ocular prosthetic device capable of non-invasive and continuous monitoring of various essential physical/biochemical parameters and drug loading/delivery for the treatment of ocular diseases. Advances in SCL technologies and the growing public interest in personalized health are accelerating SCL research more than ever before. Here, we discussed the current status and potential of SCL development through a comprehensive review from fabrication to applications to commercialization. First, we discuss the material, fabrication, and platform designs of the SCLs for the diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Then, we review the latest advances in diagnostic and therapeutic SCLs for clinical translation. Later, we summarize the established techniques for wearable power transfer and wireless data transmission applied to current SCL devices. We also provide an outlook, future opportunities, and challenges for developing next-generation SCL devices. With the rise in interest of SCL development, this comprehensive and essential review can serve as a new paradigm for the SCL devices.