Min-Jung Lee, MSa, Mi-Jin Kang, PhDb, So-Yeon Lee, MDc, Eun Lee, MDd, Kangjin Kime, Sungho Won, PhDe, f, Dong In Suh, MDg, Kyung Won Kim, MDh, Youn Ho Sheen, MDi, Kangmo Ahn, MDj, Bong-Soo Kim, PhDa,*, Soo-Jong Hong, MDc,*
a Department of Life Science, Multidisciplinary Genome Institute, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 24252, Republic of Korea
b Asan Institute for Life Science, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
c Department of Pediatrics, Childhood Asthma Atopy Center, Environmental Health Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
d Department of Pediatrics, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, Republic of Korea
e Department of Public Health Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
f Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
g Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
h Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
i Department of Pediatrics, CHA Medical Center, CHA University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
j Department of Pediatrics, Environmental Health Center for Atopic Disease, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Perturbations of the infant gut microbiota can shape the development of the immune system and link to the risk of allergic diseases.
To understand the role of the gut microbiome in atopic dermatitis, the metagenome of the infant gut microbiome was analyzed according to feeding types.
The composition of gut microbiota was analyzed in fecal samples from 129 infants (6-month-old) by pyrosequencing, including 66 healthy infants and 63 infants with atopic dermatitis. The functional profile of the gut microbiome was analyzed by whole metagenome sequencing (20 controls and 20 AD). In addition, the total number of bacteria in the feces was determined by real-time PCR.
The gut microbiome of 6-month-old infants was different by feeding types, and two microbiota groups (Bifidobacterium dominated and Escherichia/Veillonella dominated group) were found in breast-fed and mixed-fed infants. The bacterial cell amounts in the feces were lower in infants with AD than in controls. Although no specific taxa directly correlated with AD in 16S rRNA gene results, whole metagenome analysis revealed differences in functional genes related to immune development. The reduction of genes for oxidative phosphorylation, PI3K-Akt signaling, estrogen signaling, NOD-like receptor signaling, and antigen processing and presentation induced by reduced colonization of mucin-degrading bacteria (Akkermansia muciniphila, Ruminocccus gnavus, and Lachnospiraceae bacterium 2_1_58FAA) was significantly associated with stunted immune development in the AD group compared to the control group (P < .05).
Alterations in the gut microbiome may be associated with atopic dermatitis due to different bacterial genes that can modulate host immune cell function.
Key words : Atopic dermatitis; infant; gut; microbiome; immune