Although brown macroalgae holds potential as an alternative feedstock, its utilization by conventional microbial platforms has been limited due to the inability to metabolize one of the principal sugars, alginate. Here, we isolate Vibrio sp. dhg, a fast-growing bacterium that can efficiently assimilate alginate. Based on systematic characterization of the genomic information of Vibrio sp. dhg, we establish a genetic toolbox for its engineering. We also demonstrate its ability to rapidly produce ethanol, 2,3-butanediol, and lycopene from brown macroalgae sugar mixture with high productivities and yields. Collectively, Vibrio sp. dhg can be used as a platform for the efficient conversion of brown macroalgae sugars into diverse value-added biochemicals.