Platelet-neutrophil interactions contribute to vascular occlusion and tissue damage in thromboinflammatory disease. Platelet glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα), a key receptor for the cell-cell interaction, is believed to be constitutively active for ligand binding. Here, we established the role of platelet-derived protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) in reducing the allosteric disulfide bonds in GPIbα and enhancing the ligand-binding activity under thromboinflammatory conditions.
Bioinformatic analysis identified 2 potential allosteric disulfide bonds in GPIbα. Agglutination assays, flow cytometry, surface plasmon resonance analysis, a protein-protein docking model, proximity ligation assays, and mass spectrometry were used to demonstrate a direct interaction between PDI and GPIbα and to determine a role for PDI in regulating GPIbα function and platelet-neutrophil interactions. Also, real-time microscopy and animal disease models were used to study the pathophysiological role of PDI-GPIbα signaling under thromboinflammatory conditions.
Deletion or inhibition of platelet PDI significantly reduced GPIbα-mediated platelet agglutination. Studies using PDI-null platelets and recombinant PDI or Anfibatide, a clinical-stage GPIbα inhibitor, revealed that the oxidoreductase activity of platelet surface–bound PDI was required for the ligand-binding function of GPIbα. PDI directly bound to the extracellular domain of GPIbα on the platelet surface and reduced the Cys4-Cys17 and Cys209-Cys248 disulfide bonds. Real-time microscopy with platelet-specific PDI conditional knockout and sickle cell disease mice demonstrated that PDI-regulated GPIbα function was essential for platelet-neutrophil interactions and vascular occlusion under thromboinflammatory conditions. Studies using a mouse model of ischemia/reperfusion–induced stroke indicated that PDI-GPIbα signaling played a crucial role in tissue damage.
Our results demonstrate that PDI-facilitated cleavage of the allosteric disulfide bonds tightly regulates GPIbα function, promoting platelet-neutrophil interactions, vascular occlusion, and tissue damage under thromboinflammatory conditions.
Key Words : blood platelets, glycoprotein Ibalpha, inflammation, neutrophils, protein disulfide, isomerase