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This issue's Research Highlights (04-10 August 2017)
생명과학 BRIC (2017-08-10 14:45)
Research Highlights from the Nature

Cancer
T cells can predict lung-cancer recurrence
Cancer Discov. (2017)
TCR Repertoire Intratumor Heterogeneity in Localized Lung Adenocarcinomas: an Association with Predicted Neoantigen Heterogeneity and Postsurgical Recurrence
Genomic intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) may be associated with postsurgical relapse of localized lung adenocarcinomas. Recently, mutations, through generation of neoantigens were shown to alter tumor immunogenicity through T cell responses. Here, we performed sequencing of the T cell receptor (TCR) in 45 tumor regions from 11 localized lung adenocarcinomas and observed substantial intratumor differences in T cell density and clonality with the majority of T cell clones restricted to individual tumor regions...

Conservation biology
Nature reserves shield native species from invaders
Glob. Change Biol. (2017)
Protected areas offer refuge from invasive species spreading under climate change
Protected areas (PAs) are intended to provide native biodiversity and habitats with a refuge against the impacts of global change, particularly acting as natural filters against biological invasions. In practice, however, it is unknown how effective PAs will be in shielding native species from invasions under projected climate change. Here, we investigate the current and future potential distributions of 100 of the most invasive terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species in Europe. We use this information to evaluate the combined threat posed by climate change and invasions to existing PAs and the most susceptible species they shelter...

Developmental biology
Baby fish that work their mouths more grow bigger jaws
Proc. R. Soc. B (2017)
Baby fish working out: an epigenetic source of adaptive variation in the cichlid jaw
Understanding the developmental processes that underlie the production of adaptive variation (i.e. the ‘arrival of the fittest’) is a major goal of evolutionary biology. While most evo-devo studies focus on the genetic underpinnings of adaptive phenotypic variation, factors beyond changes in nucleotide sequence can also play a major role in shaping developmental outcomes...

Neuroscience
Alzheimer’s indicators seen in chimps
Neurobiol. Aging (2017)
Aged chimpanzees exhibit pathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a uniquely human brain disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta protein (Aβ) into extracellular plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) made from intracellular, abnormally phosphorylated tau, and selective neuronal loss. We analyzed a large group of aged chimpanzees (n = 20, ages 37-62 years) for evidence of Aβ and tau lesions in brain regions affected by AD in humans...

Immunology
Chronic fatigue syndrome leaves an inflammatory fingerprint
Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA (2017)
Cytokine signature associated with disease severity in chronic fatigue syndrome patients
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) devastates the lives of millions of people and has remained a mystery illness despite decades of research. It has long been suspected that inflammation is central to its pathogenesis. Although only two cytokines were found to be different (TGF-β higher and resistin lower) in ME/CFS patients compared with controls, 17 cytokines correlated with ME/CFS severity...
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