Succinic acid (SA) has been recognized as one of the most important bio-based building block chemicals due to its numerous potential applications. For the economical bio-based production of SA, extensive research works have been performed on developing microbial strains by metabolic engineering as well as fermentation and downstream processes. Here we review metabolic engineering strategies applied for bio-based production of SA using representative microorganisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia kudriavzevii, Escherichia coli, Mannheimia succiniciproducens, Basfia succiniciproducens, Actinobacillus succinogenes, and Corynebacterium glutamicum. In particular, strategies employed for developing engineered strains of these microorganisms leading to the best performance indices (titer, yield, and productivity) are showcased based on the published papers as well as patents. Those processes currently under commercialization are also analyzed and future perspectives are provided.