Adenine base editors1 enable efficient targeted adenine-to-guanine single nucleotide conversions to induce or correct point mutations in human cells, animals, and plants 1,2,3,4. Here we present a modified version of Digenome-seq, an in vitro method for identifying CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-induced double-strand breaks using whole-genome sequencing 5,6,7,8, to assess genome-wide target specificity of adenine base editors. To produce double-strand breaks at sites containing inosines, the products of adenine deamination, we treat human genomic DNA with an adenine base editor 7.10 protein–guide RNA complex and either endonuclease V or a combination of human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase and endonuclease VIII in vitro. Digenome-seq detects adenine base editor off-target sites with a substitution frequency of 0.1% or more. We show that adenine base editor 7.10, the cytosine base editor BE3, and unmodified CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) often recognize different off-target sites, highlighting the need for independent assessments of their genome-wide specificities 6. Using targeted sequencing, we also show that use of preassembled adenine base editor ribonucleoproteins, modified guide RNAs 5,8,9,10,11, and Sniper/Cas9 (ref. 12) reduces adenine base editor off-target activity in human cells.