Biruk Tesfaye Birhanu1, Na-Hye Park1, Seung-Jin Lee1, Md Akil Hossain2 and Seung-Chun Park1*
1 Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Bukgu, Daegu 41566, South Korea. 2 Veterinary Drugs and Biologics Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon 39660, South Korea.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infects intestinal epithelia and macrophages, which is prevented by inhibiting adhesion and cell invasion. This study aimed to investigate the role of methyl gallate (MG) in adhesion, invasion, and intracellular survival of Salmonella Typhimurium in Caco-2 and RAW 264.7 cells via a gentamicin protection assay, confocal microscopy, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. MG (30 μg/mL) inhibited adhesion and invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium by 54.01% and 60.5% in RAW 264.7 cells, respectively. The combination of MG with sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of marbofloxacin (MRB) inhibited the adhesion, invasion, and intracellular survival by 70.49%, 67.36%, and 74%, respectively. Confocal microscopy further revealed reductions in bacterial count in Caco-2 cells treated with MG alone or with sub-MIC of MRB. Furthermore, MG alone or in combination with sub-MIC of MRB decreased the motility of Salmonella Typhimurium. Quorum sensing genes including sdiA, srgE, and rck were downregulated by 52.8%, 61.7%, and 22.2%, respectively. Moreover, rac-1 was downregulated by 56.9% and 71.9% for MG alone and combined with sub-MIC of MRB, respectively, in mammalian cells. Furthermore, MG downregulated virulence genes of Salmonella Typhimurium including cheY, ompD, sipB, lexA, and ompF by 59.6%, 60.2%, 20.5%, 31.4%, and 16.2%, respectively. Together, the present results indicate that MG alone or in combination with a sub-MIC of MRB effectively inhibited the adhesion, invasion, and intracellular survival of Salmonella Typhimurium in vitro by downregulating quorum sensing and virulence genes.