Jong-Yil Chaia, K. Darwin Murrellb, Alan J. Lymberyc
a Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Endemic Diseases, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 110-799, South Korea
b Centre for Experimental Parasitology, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, 1870 Fredericksberg C, Denmark
c Fish Health Unit, School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
Received 31 January 2005; revised 25 July 2005; Accepted 25 July 2005. Available online 25 August 2005.
Corresponding author: K. Darwin Murrel; 5125 Russett Road, Rockville, MD 20853, USA. Tel.: +1 301 460 9307.
The fish-borne parasitic zoonoses have been limited for the most part to populations living in low- and middle-income countries, but the geographical limits and populations at risk are expanding because of growing international markets, improved transportation systems, and demographic changes such as population movements. While many in developed countries will recognize meat-borne zoonoses such as trichinellosis and cysticercosis, far fewer are acquainted with the fish-borne parasitic zoonoses which are mostly helminthic diseases caused by trematodes, cestodes and nematodes. Yet these zoonoses are responsible for large numbers of human infections around the world. The list of potential fish-borne parasitic zoonoses is quite large. However, in this review, emphasis has been placed on liver fluke diseases such as clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis and metorchiasis, as well as on intestinal trematodiasis (the heterophyids and echinostomes), anisakiasis (due to Anisakis simplex larvae), and diphyllobothriasis. The life cycles, distributions, epidemiology, clinical aspects, and, importantly, the research needed for improved risk assessments, clinical management and prevention and control of these important parasitic diseases are reviewed.
Keywords: Zoonoses; Parasite; Fish; Trematode; Cestode; Nematode